Our directory of things of interest

University Directory

Underlying Geography

  • Written by  Tim Marshall
  • Published in Opinions
Does the underlying geography of a country like Ukraine help explain the geopolitical conflict surrounding it? Does the underlying geography of a country like Ukraine help explain the geopolitical conflict surrounding it? Carport
10 Jul
There are many factors determining why leaders of countries make the decisions they do. Of these, the most often overlooked is geography

Making sense of the world’s myriad conflicts is difficult at the best of times. Without a map, and an explanation of geography, it is almost impossible.

Words can tell you what is happening, the map helps you to understand why it is happening. As the introduction to my book Prisoners of Geography states: ‘Rivers, mountains, lakes, deserts, islands, and the seas, are determining factors in history... Leaders, ideas, and economics are crucial, however, they are temporary, and the Hindu Kush will outlast them all.’

This is not a new theory, but one which is rarely explained, especially in news reporting. What is sometimes described as ‘meaningless violence’ can actually be brutally logical, based on creating a geographical reality.

A current example is Syria. Read history and you learn how President Assad’s minority Allawite tribe came from the hilly region above the Syrian coast. However, look at a map of the country’s roads, hills, and valleys, and the pattern of some of the fighting becomes clear, especially how Assad’s side is desperate to keep the route from Damascus to the coast open in case they have to make a run for it back to their historical roots.

What is sometimes described as ‘meaningless violence’ can actually be brutally logical, based on creating a geographical reality

In the Middle East, the Sykes-Picot map is currently being redrawn in blood as the fault lines emerge from the artificial lines drawn by European colonialists.

The Ottoman Empire divided what is now Iraq into three administrative areas, Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra. The British then divided three into one, a logical impossibility Christians can resolve through the Holy Trinity, but which in Iraq has resulted in an unholy mess as the Kurds, and Sunni and Shia Muslims fight for control of the regions.

In China we see the limitations of power without a global navy, Europe shows us the value of flat land and navigable rivers, while Africa indicates the effect of isolation.

Russia provides two of the clearest examples of the effect of topography. It has been invaded many times from the flat ground of the North European Plain to its west. At its narrowest, between the Baltic Sea and the Carpathian Mountains, the plain is only 300 miles wide. This is an easier position for Russia to defend itself, or indeed from which to attack. That position is called Poland which explains why Poland has changed shape so often, sometimes disappearing entirely from the map.

Most Russian ports freeze in the winter. Therefore, even though Sevastopol, on the Black Sea, does not have access to the open waters of the oceans, it is of vital importance. When Ukraine ‘flipped’ into the NATO sphere of influence, Putin felt he had to invade. Leaving morality to one side – easily done in geopolitics – geography had not given him a choice.

portRussian ship in Sevastopol, Crimea, which – crucially – doesn’t freeze in winter (Image: DmyTo)

Technology is always pushing at geography’s prison bars. American bombers can now fly from the USA to Mosul without requiring concrete along the way upon which to land to refuel, while the Russian and Canadian fleet of ice breakers and their locations mean those two countries may be best positioned to take advantage of the opening up of the Arctic trade routes and energy supplies.

To properly understand why takes a reading of the politics, a quick study of the statistics on who has the most up to date ice-breaking ships, a glance at the oil and gas statistics, and, a look at the map.

The beauty of the latter requirement, is that it often the most enjoyable part of the learning.

Tim Marshall is author of Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Tell You Everything You Need to Know About Global Politics and is editor of thewhatandthewhy.com.

Related items

geo line break v3

Free eBooks - Geographical Newsletter

geo line break v3


DurhamBath Spa600x200 Greenwich Aberystwythherts




Travel the Unknown

NEVER MISS A STORY - Follow Geographical on Social

Want to stay up to date with breaking Geographical stories? Join the thousands following us on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram and stay informed about the world.

More articles in OPINIONS...


With energy bills soaring across Europe, Marco Magrini examines what…


Mark Maslin is a professor of climatology at University College…


Greenwashing is rife, making it difficult for consumers to judge…


The results of the G7 were disappointing; world leaders need…


If governments and large energy companies fulfil their promises, we…


We’re running out of time to tackle climate change, but…


The end of overpopulation? With scientific evidence suggesting that fertility is…


Jyoti Fernandes is an agroecological farmer based in Dorset and…


Marco Magrini shares his views on the government's new White…


Joe Biden’s entry into the White House is good news…


Science and technology are making incremental steps to a cleaner…


An uncertain future makes predicting it big business says Marco Magrini


The only way forward is to reject coal, says Marco…


A proposed development at Toondah Harbour, in the Moreton Bay…


Many of the crises we are currently experiencing trace their…


The Covid-19 pandemic has profoundly shocked energy markets, but it’s…